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terça-feira, 29 de maio de 2012

2012 doomsday mayan calendar


2012 doomsday mayan calendar



WHAT IS 2012? WHAT CAN HAPPEN AROUND THIS YEAR?

Here are several theories, from scientific to spiritual and mystical.

All are unanimous in saying that the world as we know it may have its days numbered

(Last edited 06/11/2009)As the year 2012 approaches, scientists, religious and mystical world of the chase after clues left by civilizations and prophets of the past will be explaining how the end times. In many ancient cultures the year 2012 is marked on calendars as the 'Armageddon', the 'Apocalypse', the 'end of the world', 'doomsday', 'the end of a cycle' and, in the most optimistic ' the year end and this was another, better, will start. ' Mayans, Egyptians, Celts, Hopi, Nostradamus and many prophets, and Chinese Buddhists, WebBots, and scientists from many different religious beliefs say that the world as we know it may have its days numbered.
Here are some theories of what may occur in 2012, before or since. Some theories are scientific, some are spiritual and mystical. It is recommended that common sense in reading.
According to  Mayan cosmology , the Earth has five major cycles or eras, each with about 5125 years. For them, four have passed away. "The four previous cycles ended in destruction. The Mayan doomsday prophecy refers to the last day of the 5th cycle, ie, December 21, 2012." says Steven Alten. The fifth and current cycle will also end in destruction? What will unleash it? The answer may lie in a rare cosmic phenomenon that the Mayans predicted to more than 2,000 years. "The Mayan prophecy for 2012 is based on an astronomical alignment. In December 2012, the solstice sun will align with the center of our galaxy. It is a rare cosmic alignment. Happens once every 26,000 years," says John Major Jenkins, author of Maya Cosmogenesis 2012.
Every 26,000 years the Sun aligns with the center of the Milky Way. At the same time is another rare astrological phenomenon, a change in the earth's axis relative to the celestial sphere. The phenomenon is called precession. The exact date of all is December 21, 2012."The Earth on its axis oscillates slowly changing our angular orientation relative to the galaxy. A complete precession takes 26,000 years." John Major Jenkins says.
But what actually happens on the fateful date of December 21, 2012? For many days will be the annihilation of the human race due to a  reversal of the poles of the earth . How is this possible? Due to disturbances in the sun's magnetic fields that generate massive  solar storms , affect the polarity of our entire planet. Result: The Earth's magnetic field will reverse immediately, with catastrophic consequences for humanity. Violent earthquakes will demolish all buildings, feeding colossal tsunamis and intense volcanic activity. In fact, the Earth's crust slide, throwing continents thousands of miles from its current location.
Until it is developing  new maps  geography land after the physical changes that supposedly occur. It is speculated that Europe and North America will suffer a displacement of thousands of kilometers towards the North, and its climate will become polar.
To the surprise of many, in 2008 appeared a  Crop Circle (crop circles)  indicating the planetary formation in 2012 and perhaps wanting to alert us to something that will occur on 21/12/2012.
Others say that major disasters are generated due to  passage of a star / comet / planet near Earth. It would be the "abomination of desolation" of Jesus, the "abomination of desolation" of the prophet Daniel, the "great burning star with a torch, called Wormwood" the Apocalypse of John, the "big star", "the great king of terror" "the monster" or "the new celestial body" of Nostradamus, the "star Intruder" or "planet sanitizer" Ramatis of the "planet hickey" cited by Chico Xavier, or "Planet X" sought by astronomers, or " 12th Planet "by Zecharia Sitchin, or" Nibiru / Marduk "of the Sumerians, or the" Hercolubus "class of Gnosis.
The  148th edition of UFO Magazine , December 2008, ran an extensive article on the supposed star Nibiru, called Nibiru: Blade Runner, the university professor and author Salvatore De Salvo, a consultant with UFO, defending its existence and the imminence of a disaster on Earth upon its passage, expected in 2012. While this view has been challenged by catastrophic Ufologist Marco Antonio Petit in the  151st edition of UFO Magazine , March 2009, Salvatore returned to ratify the warning of the approach of Nibiru in a  paper published by the site of UFO Magazine in April 2009 . In  the program Fantastico Globo March 1, 2009  and Nibiru 2012 the theme was approached very quickly. As one might expect from a TV station and intended to open large mass (common people) unfortunately the subject was treated with derision and seen as a "Hoax" (rumor spoofed), without there being any in-depth investigation by the issuer (the porque2012.com site appeared briefly in this report).
Sounds crazy, but maybe it is true that the Sun has a companion death that threatens life on our planet. The sun's hypothetical companion was first suggested in 1985 by Whitmire and Matese, who named the  Nemesis, the goddess of vengeance . It would be even possible that this "Death Star" was already present in some star catalog, and no one had noticed anything unusual. Among the supporters of the existence of Nemesis geologists who are betting that every 26 or 30 million years have been mass extinctions of life on Earth, alongside the emergence of a large impact crater (or several of them). Geological records indicate indeed an enormous impact crater in the Caribbean Sea, with 65 million years, from the late Cretaceous, coinciding with the end of the reign of the dinosaurs This event would have opened the way for mammals our ancestors to take care of the planet and our own species could evolve. One or more comets would have hit the Earth, they argue, wrapping it in a cloud of dust for months.
The idea of a giant planet, unknown to pass close to Earth or even shocking it may seem absurd, but science indicates that we have to concern ourselves with. We're talking about asteroids. An  asteroid (2003 QQ47)  of just over one kilometer in diameter would be the way to Earth and could collide with the planet on March 21, 2014, according to astronomers from the UK agency responsible for monitoring potentially dangerous objects for the planet.Another risk would be the  asteroid 2004 VD17  discovered on November 27, 2004, which is about 500 meters long and one billion tons. NASA said the 2004 VD17 could collide with Earth early next century, and the impact would cause the release of 10,000 megatons of energy (equivalent to the explosion of all nuclear weapons on the planet) causing mass destruction the planet. The asteroid 2004 VD17 is with the greatest chances of coming into collision with the Earth. The chances of a collision with Earth on May 4, 2102, were evaluated on occasion as a possibility in a 3.000.Novas observations and calculations further increased the risk to "less than one per 1,000." Another asteroid that puts fear in scientists is called  Apophis . According to scientists, there is a small possibility it into a collision course with Earth in coming decades. Recently, NASA said it is not able to detect and destroy asteroids.
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For NASA scientists the 2012 date will be marked by violent solar storms  and the total melting of the North Pole. For governments and the UN  is a terrible thing to happen to our planet , so it was  opened in early 2008, the "doomsday vault"aimed to house seeds from all known varieties in the world of plants with nutritional value. In the 14th UN Conference on climate change in early December 2008, the Polish Minister of Environment, Maciej Nowicki held that "humanity with his behavior has pushed the Earth system to its limits." "Continue Anyway provoke threats of an intensity never seen before: enormous droughts and floods, devastating hurricanes, pandemics of tropical diseases and even armed conflicts and migration unprecedented", launched by asking negotiators who do not "fall prey to particular interests in this dark time we modify the dangerous direction that humanity has taken. " See  here  the full story. Reviews the international financial community dominated the president's speech to the General Assembly of the United Nations (UN) in June 2009, Miguel d 'Escoto, the opening of the conference on global crisis said: 'We must prevent the crisis (financial) turn into humanitarian tragedy, and humans end up like the dinosaurs. ' . Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon warned in the third UN Conference on Climate Change which, he says,  global warming is putting the world an abyss . "We are stepping on the accelerator and walked into the abyss," Ban reported.
The  journal Science published an article  on June 26, 2009 stating that the scientists are unanimous in saying that we are not prepared for the next solar maximum will happen between 2012 and 2013. A large solar storm could bring to the frightening consequences humanidade.Danos the power grid and communications systems could be catastrophic, the scientists say, with effects that can lead to uncontrolled government of the situation. The forecasts are based on a major solar storm of 1859 that caused telegraph wires to enter short in the U.S. and Europe, leading to serious fires. It was possibly the worst in 200 years, according to a new study. With the advent of power grids, communications satellites and today we have much more at risk. "A contemporary repetition of the event [1859] socio-economic disturbances cause significantly more extensive," the researchers concluded.Every 11 years, when the sun enters its more active phase, it can send powerful magnetic storms that shut down satellites, threaten astronaut safety, and even disrupt communication systems on Earth. An article in the American channel Fox News said:  "A brutal sun tempestadade could 'delete' the U.S. for months" . To make matters worse, NASA scientists reported in 2003 that were discovered  "holes" in the Earth's magnetic field, which may indicate that our protective shield against solar storms will not support the solar maximum will occur around 2012. Recently a  study  showed that the sun bombards the earth with bursts of particles - the so-called solar wind - even when its activity appears to be low. If this is true, the Earth can suffer major impacts in the face of a period of solar minimum.
For  WebBots  something devastating will happen in 2012. According to its creators, the WebBots seem to indicate an event bound to plasma discharge that could reach our planet by 2012. This might suggest a  gamma ray burst  or some event connected to solar storms that could hit us by 2012 (as already mentioned before). It is also speculated to be around 2012 that the  Yellowstone mega volcano  will erupt and destroy half of the U.S., and dramatically affect the climate of the whole planet. Also it is speculated that the U.S. East Coast could be hit by a  major tsunami  caused by a volcanic eruption near the Canary Islands. This event, according to some scientists. also reach the  northern coast and northeastern Brazil .
Experts believe that can happen in the coming years the dreaded  "Tokai Earthquake"  in Japan, a mega earthquake of catastrophic proportions. Another real possibility that terrorizes scientists is the occurrence of a mega deadly earthquake in Los Angeles, called the "Big One" . According to some scientists, there are signs that this inevitable event approaches.
Some scholars believe that 2012 is the deadline for we find a solution to the inevitable  end of oil  that may occur in the coming decades. If this is not done the world could enter into a huge global recession and subsequent economic collapse. The nations will fight among themselves for the last drop of oil. This could trigger a war on the planet and the end of civilization as we know, these scholars warn.
The  'Bible Code'  seems to indicate that the end times came after the attacks of September 11, 2001 and would culminate in the fall of an asteroid or nuclear war  in 2012 . As for the Timewave Zero  date of December 21, 2012 marks the balance, the end of the old paradigms, the new beginning, where nothing is like it was before.
Scholars of the  "Lost Book of Nostradamus"  are interpretations of what would be an acknowledgment of Nostradamus on the period from 1999 to 2012. According to these interpretations, Nostradamus seems to warn us about an event of great magnitude that can occur around 2012 on our Planet.
For some  Tibetan monks  from the date of 2012 will mark the "end of days", occurring in about an atomic war this year. Still according to this monk, the world is not totally destroyed, because there is an extraterrestrial intervention.
The date of December 21, 2012 is also the magic date for the Hopi Indians of Arizona. "The Hopi prophecy  is an oral tradition of stories that, in the words of the Indians, predicted the arrival of the white man, the world wars and nuclear weapons. They also provide the time when mankind will eventually move to the 'fifth world' " , Richard Boylan reports on Mother Earth Crying: Journal of Prophecies of Native Peoples Worldwide. The Hopi prophecies hide their jealously the general public, sometimes to the point of prosecuting those who disclose.However, it is known that the Hopi calendar essentially combines with the Maya: both mark the beginning of the Fifth World, or Age for 21/12/2012
Some sources suggest that we are currently nearing the  end of Kali Yuga (Iron Age)  , which according to Hindu tradition, is the latest and most negative of four evolutionary eras of the great cycle Manvantaric. There was a Golden Age (Satya Yuga), but as time progressed, the planet entered a downward spiral and negative quality of life in each Yuga (Age or Era) has gradually become removed from knowing the truth and natural law . The Kali Yuga is characterized by intoxication, prostitution, killing animals, destruction of nature and the gambling addiction. This is the age where sense gratification is the goal of existence, where it is believed only in what is seen, where there is no mercy, and where God has become a myth. There are wars, addiction and ignorance are dominant and true virtue is practically nonexistent. The leaders who rule the earth are violent and corrupt world and has become completely perverted. According to the precepts of Hinduism, Kalki, the 10th and final avatar of Vishnu, will come riding a white horse, wielding a flaming sword with which to defeat evil and restore Dharma, beginning a new cycle, a new Golden Age or Satya Yuga. In the "Brahma-Purana Vaivarta" which is a Hindu religious text, Lord Krishna tells Ganga Devi that a new Golden Age will start 5,000 years after the beginning of the Kali Yuga and that this will last 10,000 years. This prediction of the arrival of a new world is also predicted by the Mayans. The Mayan calendar began with the 5th Great Cycle in 3113 BC and ending on December 21, 2012. The Hindu Kali Yuga began on 18 February 3102 BC There is only a difference of 11 years between the beginning of the Kali Yuga and the beginning of the 5th Great Cycle of the Maya. The ancient Hindus mainly used lunar calendars but also solar calendars. If the normal lunar calendar equals 354.36 days per year, then the moon would be 5270 years since the start of Kali Yuga as of December 21, 2012. There are about 5113 years of solar 365.24 days per year since the beginning of the Kali Yuga to the Winter Solstice of 2012. Thus, the Mayan calendar seems to corroborate the Hindu calendar. Either by solar or lunar years, according to ancient Hindu scriptures, seems to have reached the time of Krishna's prophecy come true. A golden age may well begin in 2012. It is impressive because both calendars began at about the same time there are about 5000 years ago and both predict a new world altogether, a Golden Age that will begin about 5000 years after the beginning of the same. And it is still amazing because, historically, these two ancient cultures did not have any contact. Again there seems to be some truth behind it.
To Howard Menger, famous contacted by extraterrestrial beings of 50 years, the et's would have told him they  would return to Earth in 2012 . Interestingly, the Maya priest Chilam Balam says the same. He said the end of this katum, ending in 2012, will mark the return of the Supreme Godhead to Earth , heralding a new era in human affairs. The Mayan Sacred Book of Chilam Balam, says: "At the end of the last Katun (1992-2012) there will be a time when we are immersed in darkness, but soon the sun will come the men bringing the signal future. Awaken the earth from the north and west the ITZA awake. " We can see that this Mayan prophecy is compatible with religious awaiting the return of the messiah or the scholars of the flying saucers awaiting the great extraterrestrial contact. All say that this event will take place as soon as possible.
The religious and spiritual hope to the "doomsday" or "Armageddon", the spiritual separation of the "tares and wheat" or "final battle between God and Satan" , which will be with the arrival of a messiah (or in a more of modern aliens ) and total collapse of human civilization based on materialism / selfishness ( collapse of the economic system ) and initiate a "new world", a new civilization turned to spiritualism, love and brotherhood. Along the same lines of "doomsday", others say that the  arrival of extraterrestrials  will occur after a cataclysm caused by the passage of the "second sun" (as discussed earlier).
Scholars of the Mayan calendar as the spiritual Fernando Malkun also theorize that the date will be marked by a shift of consciousness:  the end of fear .
Do not forget that the spiritual vision of the "doomsday", the material side (disasters, money order, materialism, consumerism, etc.) is placed in the background. Not that this will not happen. They say yes, but what will separate one from the other world is a  changing consciousness : consciousness selfish and individualistic "I am human, I belong to Planet Earth" will be born and die universal consciousness' I am the incarnation of a spirit, belong to Universe. " Recalling that for many Spiritualists Spiritualists and the reprobate in the "final judgment", ie those that do not change the consciousness before the latest "evidence" will be exiled to Nibiru / Planet X  and have to start from scratch the whole process of reincarnation , while approved for the new earth will be free from memories of the past and any trace of selfishness and individualism. Will the new inhabitants of the earth, the "world of regeneration," as the spiritualists say.
As seen, many have their version of what will occur around 2012. But if you notice you will see that there will be the "end of the world," but to "a kind of world," of our civilization, society, race. As often happened, a new breed developed more will come after the extinction of the old.
We do not doubt that our civilization is on the verge of collapse. Never before were immersed in so many crises at once: human overpopulation, poverty and social inequality, global financial crisis, food crisis, energy crisis, shortage of water and oil, frantic consumerism, terrorism and threats of nuclear war, the resurgence of deadly diseases , political scandals, falling governments, climate change and the dramatic increase of natural disasters and the extinction of species, and the worsening violence and civil unrest. Anyone who must use intelligence to understand that, regardless of the 2012 prophecies come true, our society is striding toward the cliff. Just be a good observer and realize that. As absurd as it may seem, this is not even a little irrational. If you go back in time to see great civilizations collapsed when they reached the pinnacle intellectual and technological. In one fell swoop they disappear from the earth, leaving unanswered questions and a great mystery.


The world ends in 2012

Meteor destroying the earth
The Mayan calendar ends in 2012 and a strange series of terrifying events ( meteor collision with Earth and planets , predictions of many 'paranormal' on the end of the world in 2012 and conservation problems of our planet as global warming) seem to be converging to talk about the destruction of humanity that year. Recently we reported that a solar cycle that will peak in 2012 will bring solar storms that can leave much of humanity in the dark  for months before repairs are made. During this period will bring chaos in many parts of the world.
Our planet also appears to be suffering some symptoms of our occupation. According to some  scientists 'crazies' are a kind of parasite on the planet  and he will inevitably react against 'infection'.
Giant meteor fell to Earth as  causing much destruction and this may occur again.
Coincidentally the Mayan calendar that was used on top of that civilization also ends in 2012. Is this a  Mayan prophecy ? Coincidence it? The  Mayan prophecy  has already taken a large proportion on the Internet around the world with millions of fans believing firmly that  the world will end in 2012 . The Mayan prophecy is selling lots of books and giving many lectures, documentaries and DVDs across the globe. There are a multitude of different theories.
The Long Count calendar is just one among many that the Mayans used. Like our months, years and centuries, it is divided into units of time increasing.Every 20 days form a "month" or uinal. Each uinals 18, a tun, or "year", each 20 tuns made a katun, and so on. While our count system does not take centuries to an end, the Mayan Long Count calendar lasts about 5,200 years and ends on the date 13.0.0.0.0, which many scholars (there is no consensus about) corresponds to Our 21.12.2012.
That does not mean they waited for the end of the world that day. "The Amerindian peoples were not only a linear conception of time, thinking that would allow an absolute end," says Natalino Eduardo dos Santos, a professor of American history from pre-Hispanic USP. "Nowhere is said that the cycle we are experiencing would be the last." Most scholars believe that, after reaching the end date, it would restart the calendar. As for us, December 31 is succeeded by January 1 for the day 22/12/2012 they correspond to the day 0.0.0.0.1. [ Galileo ]
The reality is that the  Mayan prophecy  is the scientific point of view, only a myth. And even if there was a prophecy, because a culture that was human sacrifice rituals should have any credibility to say what would happen centuries later with the planet?
And the forecasts that the very HypeScience has published about possible future global catastrophes? These science-based predictions (of space storms, meteor, etc..) Use observations, inferences and predictions involving solid and specialists in various areas around the world. But it is only conjecture, a possibility that ranges from zero to 100%.Even if you do not know the year 2012 will be even worse year of solar storms, since the end of the solar cycle the last two years of activity tend to be stronger.
There have been hundreds of prophecies in the history of mankind who said the world would end and no one hit so far. If I were to bet on 2012 being the last year or not of humanity, I certainly would not bet the prophets.  And you?
UPDATE!  I had forgotten to mention that  Thiago  was one of the commentators who helped inspire this article in the comments 'highly prophetic' article  Storm space will be catastrophic to Earth by 2012 .

Earth may collide with Meteor far ahead of schedule

Meteor colliding with earth, impact - HypeScience.com

The largest meteor falling to Earth, recorded by history, 100 years ago today and exploded with a capacity equal to 1,000 Hiroshima atomic bombs.
7h17min to the day June 30, 1908 a massive explosion occurred in the woods of central Siberia. About 80 million trees were felled in an area of 2000 km 2 near the Tunguska River. People at 60 km away from the epicenter were thrown to the ground.  How many intelligent civilizations exist in the galaxy? 1,000,000
The cause of all this devastation was an asteroid or comet, with only a few tens of meters long, detonated between 5 and 10km tall.
Witnesses recall the fireball as something similar to a "flying star" plowing through the cloudless skies of June at an oblique angle.
The dust trail of superheated fireball led to descriptions like "pillar of fire" that was quickly replaced by a giant cloud of black smoke on the horizon.
"The sky split in two and fire appeared high and wide over the forest. The division grew in the sky and the whole north side was covered with fire, "one local says. "In a moment I was so hot that I could not bear, as if my shirt was on fire ... I wanted to rip my shirt and throw it away, but then came a roar from the sky. I felt a sharp blow and I was thrown several feet. "
This eyewitness was lucky, but a hunter who was much closer to the explosion died after being thrown against a tree by the blast. However, the air displacement did no more victims due in large part, has occurred at a remote location.
Meteor colliding with earth, impact - HypeScience.com
This picture of an expedition of 1927, shows the area near the epicenter of the explosion
Strong light
The greatest spatial impact suffered by Earth in modern times serves as a reminder of the continuing threat that our planet faces, objects from space.  Discover the mysterious 'spine' of the universe
If the "impactor" had exploded above Tunguska cities like London fatalities could reach into the millions.
The effects of Tunguska were not limited to Siberia. In London it was possible to read newspapers and sports in the street at midnight. This probably occurred because of the reflection of sunlight on the dust trail of the fireball. 
An aerial survey done in 1938 revealed the epicenter through the angle at which the trees had been felled. An area of ​​50 km in diameter still showed devastated, with a butterfly-shaped.
The trees in the epicenter were charred and were no branches or bark, but remained standing, leading to wedge them as the "telegraph poles".
Some researchers think a comet would have been too weak to have caused the event, so an asteroid is the most likely candidate. But others think that some comets may have parts of more resistant material to survive a dip in the atmosphere.
But the absence of any crater connected to the Tunguska event left the door open to some alternative theories to the meteorite. A block of antimatter, the impact of a black hole and, inevitably, an alien spacecraft have been proposed as possible causes of the explosion.
But just last year, researchers suggested that Lake Cheko, did not appear on any map of the region before 1908, is the epicenter of the real shocking when plunged into the earth.Radar signals indicate that there is a dense object 10 m under the lake and plan to investigate the area on an expedition next year. There are suggestions that may have fallen two separate objects that exploded in the atmosphere one hundred years ago.
Meteor colliding with earth, impact - HypeScience.com
Spanish researchers will study the lake and look for Cheko meteorite samples to determine if it was really the epicenter of the explosion.
It is estimated that an asteroid 1 km in diameter crashes into the Earth every 100,000 years. Space rocks about 10 m in diameter collide with Earth every 3000 years.  Planet Earth's twin certainly exists
But some researchers suspect that the frequency is greater than this. Mark Bailey has investigated an event known as the "Brazilian Tunguska". This little-known event was apparently caused by three large meteorites that fell in the Amazon rainforest. The fire caused continued uninterrupted for weeks and depopulated hundreds of miles of jungle.
In June 2002, U.S. military satellites detected an explosion equivalent to 12 kilotons. The event was attributed to an asteroid that was not detected during its approach to our planet  'Nuclear Winter'
The Spaceguard international research program works to identify near-Earth objects that are larger than 1 km, the class of objects that could cause a "nuclear winter" if will collide with our planet, possibly threatening civilization.
Objects the size of the meteor that hit the Amazon in 1930 or Tunguska, a hundred years ago, are too small to be detected by current instruments.
But there is no guarantee that the next object will explode at sea or in sparsely populated areas. This brings up another question: Are we ready for the next?
The BBC News website interviewed Dr. Richard Crowther, chair of a UN program called the Near Earth Object (Near Earth Object): "The Tunguska reminds us of impacts that these events occurred in the recent past. Research suggests that objects of this size are numerous enough to anticipate similar events in the relatively near future. "
Many observers are concerned by the lack of action to combat the threat that the near-Earth asteroids have.
In 2029 an asteroid 270 m in diameter, called 99942 Apophis, will be passing so close to Earth that can be seen with the naked eye. If this colossus primary pass through a specific region of space, or "keyhole", with a width of several miles, it will hit Earth in 2036.
There are several ideas can be used to avoid a collision. One is to use nuclear weapons to vaporize the object. Another is to use a spacecraft to the asteroid out of its course: the accelerating or braking it to lose its encounter with the Earth's surface.  Giant black hole is catapulted into space
If for some reason the asteroid is not seen in time or deflection does not work for any cause, may need to be a "nudge" to the stone space to deviate a bit and hit the ocean or any area not populated the Earth. [ Font and ] and projected through the atmosphere.


Space storm will be catastrophic to Earth by 2012

solar storm
A new study showed that a major solar storm can bring frightening consequences for mankind.
Damage to power grids and communications systems could be catastrophic, the scientists conclude, with effects that can lead to uncontrolled government of the situation.
The forecasts are based on a major solar storm of 1859 that caused telegraph wires to enter short in the U.S. and Europe, leading to serious fires. It was possibly the worst in 200 years, according to a new study. With the advent of power grids, communications satellites and today we have much more at risk.
"A contemporary repetition of the event [1859] socio-economic disturbances cause significantly more extensive," the researchers concluded.
Every 11 years, when the sun enters its more active phase, it can send powerful magnetic storms that shut down satellites, threaten astronaut safety, and even disrupt communication systems on Earth. The current worst storms knock power grids by inducing currents that melt transformers.
U.S. Only one major solar storm - which usually occurs once every 100 years - could leave 130 million people without electricity, according to the study. Other vital systems would be affected by these power failures.
The impacts of lack of electricity, for example, would end with the distribution of drinking water in a matter of hours, perishable foods and medicines would be lost between 12 and 24, sewage services, telephones, transportation, fuel supply would be interrupted, etc..
The energy could take months to be restored, according to research. During this period banks could be closed and international trade would be suspended.
"Emergency systems were pushed to the limit and command and control could be lost," wrote the researchers from the University of Colorado, USA.
"Whether disasters or terrestrial space weather incidents, the results can be devastating to modern societies that depend in a myriad of ways, in technologically advanced systems," the scientists said in a statement released with the report.
Solar storms have significant effects in modern days. In 1989 the sun has issued a storm that brought down the electrical grid throughout Quebec, Canada. In 2003, a period of two weeks, two satellites were disabled and instruments in a spacecraft orbiting Mars have been damaged by solar storms.
Space weather can produce solar electromagnetic storms that induce extreme currents in wires disrupting power lines, causing widespread blackouts and affecting communication cables from the internet. Severe space weather produces solar energetic particles and shifts the Earth's radiation belts, which damage satellites used for commercial communications, GPS and weather.
The next peak of solar activity is expected in 2012. Currently the sun is 'quiet', but the activity can increase at any time and severe space weather (how severe will be no one knows) will emerge a year or two before the peak.
Some scientists think that the next peak will lead to more severe events than other recent peaks.
"A catastrophic failure of the government infrastructure and commercial space and the ground can be mitigated by increasing public awareness, improving vulnerable infrastructure and developing advanced forecasting capabilities climate [solar]," the report says.
The report has been delegated and funded by NASA. Experts in industry and government as well as academics from around the world participated. [ Live Science ]


Earth may collide with Meteor far ahead of schedule

Meteor colliding with earth, impact - HypeScience.com

The Mayan calendar and the end of the world

The year 2012 is a year  Maia . After all ... is because of the Mayan civilization that only talk about the end of the world on 21/12/2012. The Mayans were not the first to use a calendar, but theirs is very complicated to understand, because, in fact, are  multiple calendars  that are combined and used differently!But thanks to the accuracy of these calendars - the most perfect among Mesoamerican peoples - the Mayans were able to organize their daily activities and simultaneously record the passage of time tells the story the political and religious events that they considered crucial. They believed that the god  Itzamna  taught to primary science Mayan calendar. Scholars believe that they have established a zero day * on 13 August 3113 BC, but no one knows what happened to it. ** From this day cycles - counted every twenty or integrated by fifty-two years - are repeated and dominated the linearity of time. Different things could happen on the dates of each cycle, but each sequence was exactly like the other, past or future. In the Mayan perspective, past, present and future are in the same dimension. This conception of circular time, hinders scholars. For example, the invasion of the tenth century Toltec blends in chronic Maya during the Spanish invasion that occurred 500 years later. The calendar  Tzolkin  was the first to be used by the Mayans. The division into trezenas 20 days (260 in total) may be the time of human gestation (just over 8 months), the Pleiades or the cultivation of corn. The numbers 13 and 20 were important in the Mayan culture: 20 is the number of fingers (they used both hands and toes to count) and 13 is the number of joints of the body (one neck, two shoulders, two elbows , two wrists, two hips, two knees and two ankles) and the number of levels of Paradise where the gods reigned. To understand its operation, consider two gears working together: one has the glyphs corresponding to another 20 days and the numbers 1 to 13.This calendar was considered sacred because caracterísitas determined the dates of birth (like a horoscope), dates of cultivation, rainfall and religious ceremonies. The calendar  Haab  - equivalent to the ancient Egyptians and some semelhaças the Gregorian (our) - is based on the  solar year , ie the time it takes the Earth to go around the Sun was the civil caledário used for agriculture and the economy. It was also divided into 20 days, but in 18 periods totaling 360 days. Realizing that the total number of days not completed the solar year, the Maya created the months Uayeb , the five "nameless days" known to be the period of rest of the gods, so many a time of danger and foreboding. The portals between the mortal realm and the Underworld dissolve, and no limit to prevent malicious deities caused any disasters. The Mayans performed ceremonies during  Uayeb  hoping that the gods return. For example, people avoided leaving home and not washed or combed his hair.









The glyphs corresponding to 18 periods (months)  Haab  more  Uayeb .

For prevention and historical record, the Maya calendar most wanted one, because the  Tzolkin  and  Haab  were less than one year. So combined, these two calendars offered only 18,890 days, a period of about 52 years, which was sufficient to identify a date for the satisfaction of most people, it was very much above the general life expectancy of the time . This  calendar cycle  was the longest of Mesoamerica. The end of each  calendar cycle  was a period of tension and bad luck among the Maya, who performed rituals to see if the gods would grant another 52-year cycle. The Maya wanted to record the history of their civilization for future generations. For this, they needed a calendar that would take them through hundreds or even thousands of years. Here comes the  Katun , the Long Count Calendar, or the Great Cycle, lasting about 5125 years! Is different from their division, made ​​as follows:


  • kin  (1 day)
  • winal  (20 days or 20 kin)
  • tun  (360 days or 18 winals)
  • katun  (20 tuns or 7,200 days or 19.7 years)
  • baktun  (144,000 days or 20 katuns or 394.3 years)
  • pictun  (20 baktun or 7885 years)
  • calabtun  (157,704 years or pictuns 20)
  • kinchiltun  (20 calabtuns or 3,154,071 years)
  • alutun  (20 kinchiltun or 63,081,429 years, the period surrounding the disappearance of the dinosaurs)

The misinterpretation of this calendar forms the basis of belief in a cataclysm that would determine the end of the world on December 21, 2012 ***. This data is only the last day of the 13th  baktun  (date 13.0.0.0.0), ie the end of a cycle and not the end of time. But the Maya believed that at the end of each cycle  pictun the universe was destroyed and rebuilt. So mark the calendar:  the end of the world will be on 12 October 4772!

Although there were two other important calendars: the Lunar Cycle  (thirteen 28-day) and  Venusian Cycle  (with 584 days). Many events in these cycles were seen as being inauspicious and harmful.Occasionally, wars and coronations were planned to coincide with stages of these cycles. Other cycles, combinations and calendar progressions less prevalent or poorly understood, were also followed as a count of 819 days which appears on a few inscriptions and intervals of 9 and 13 days associated with different groups of deities, animals and other planets.Understand better functioning of these calendars on  Wikipedia , the  How stuff works


Mayan Calendar

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
The  Mayan calendar  is a system of  calendars  and  almanacs  distinct, used by the Maya civilization  of  Mesoamerica  pre-Columbian , and by some modern Maya communities in highland  Guatemala .
These calendars can be synchronized and interconnected, their combinations giving rise to additional, more extensive cycles. The fundamentals of the Mayan calendars are based on a system that was in common use in the region, dating back at least the  sixth century BC . It has many features in common with calendars employed by other earlier Mesoamerican civilizations, such as the Zapotec  and  Olmec , and some of his contemporaries or later civilizations, such as the  Mixtec  and the  Aztecs .Although the  Mesoamerican calendar  was not created by the Maya, extensions and refinements were made ​​by them the most sophisticated. Along with the Aztecs, the Maya calendars are the best documented and understood.
By tradition the  Mayan mythology , as documented in the records colonais iucatecas enrollment and rebuilt the Late Classic and Post Classic, the deity  Itzamna  is frequently credited as having taken knowledge of the Mayan calendar system ancestors, along with  writing  in general and other foundational aspects of Maya culture. [1]

INDEX

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EDIT ]OVERVIEW

Mayan Stele for today
Tzi
12 1212Baktun
KaNone.pngKa
Tun
19 191919Katun
19 191919Tun
7 7Winal
14 1414Kin
6 6 Ix
17 171717Sip
The most important of these calendars is one with a period of 260 days. This 260-day calendar was prevalent across all Mesoamerican societies, and is of great antiquity (almost certainly the oldest of the calendars). Is still in use in some regions of  Oaxaca and the Maya communities of the highlands of Guatemala . The Mayan version is known by scholars as  the tzolkin , or  Tzolk'in  in spelling  reviewed the  Academy Lenguas Mayas de Guatemala . [2]  The  tzolkin  is combined with another 365-day calendar (known as the Haab , or  Haab ' ) to form a synchronized cycle lasting 52  haabs , called  calendrical wheel . Cycles under 13 days (  trezena ) and 20 days (  twenty ) were important components of the cycles  tzolkin  and  Haab , respectively.
A different way to schedule was used to keep track long periods of time, and for entering the date calendar (identifying when an event occurred in relation to others). This form, known as the  Mesoamerican Long Count calendar  or  Long Count , is based on the number of days elapsed since a mythical starting point. [3]  According to the correlation between the Long Count and Western calendars accepted by the vast majority of Maya researchers (known as the GMT correlation), this threshold is equivalent to the 11th August 3114 BC in the  proleptic Gregorian calendar or 6 September in  the Julian calendar (-3113 astronomical). The correlation Goodman-Martinez-Thompson was chosen by Thompson in 1935 based on earlier correlations by Joseph Goodman in 1905 (August 11), Juan Martínez Hernández in 1926 (August 12), and John Eric Sydney Thompson in 1927 (August 13 ). [4] [5]  By its linear nature, the long count could be extended to refer to any date in the distant future or past. This schedule involves the use of a system  positional notation , where each position meant a  multiple increasing the number of days. The  numbering system Mayan  was essentially  vigesimal  (ie had numeric base 20), and each unit of a given position 20 times the unit represented in the preceding position. An important exception was made ​​in the amount of second order, which instead represented  18  × 20 or 360 days, closer to the solar year than would  20  × 20 = 400 days. It should be noted, however, that the long count cycles are independent of the solar year.
Many of the long count Mayan inscriptions are supplemented with a series moon, which provides information about the lunar phase  and position of the  moon  in a semi-annual cycle of  lunations .
Venus with a cycle of 584 days was also maintained, and recorded the  heliacais rises  of  Venus  as the morning star or evening. Many events in this cycle were seen as being  astrologically  inauspicious and harmful, and occasionally wars were launched to coincide with stages of this cycle.
Other cycles, combinations and calendar progressions less prevalent or poorly-understood, were also followed. A  count of 819 days  appears in a few inscriptions. Sets repetitive intervals, 9 and 13 days associated with different groups of deities, animals and other significant concepts are also known.

EDIT ]MAYAN CONCEPT OF TIME

With the development of the Long Count calendar and its positional notation (which is believed inherited from other Mesoamerican cultures), the Maya had an elegant system in which events could be recorded in a linear fashion relative to each other and also with respect to own calendar ("linear time"). In theory, this system can be extended to delineate any length of time desired, by simply increasing the number of markers used higher order (thus generating an increasing sequence of multiple days, each day following uniquely identified by its Long Count number) . In practice, most of the Maya Long Count inscriptions are limited to record only the first 5 coefficients in this system (a score  b'ak'tun ), which was more than adequate to express any historical or current data (20  b ' ak'tuns  are equivalent to about 7885  solar years ). Still, there are inscriptions that indicated or implied larger sequences, indicating that the Maya well understood a linear conception of time (past-present-future).
However, in common with other Mesoamerican societies, the repetition of several cycles calendar, the natural cycles of observable phenomena, and the renewal of recurrence and death-rebirth imagery in their mythological traditions were important influences ominpresentes and Mayan societies. This conceptual view, in which the "cyclical nature" of time is highlighted, was preeminent, and many rituals were linked to the completion of several cycles and recurrence. As the particular settings of the calendar were repeated again, so were the influences "supernatural" to which they were associated. Thus, each particular configuration of the calendar had a "character" in particular, would influence the day that showed such a configuration.  divinations  could then be made ​​from the auguries associated with a certain configuration, since the events at future dates would be subject to same influences as the corresponding dates of previous cycles. Events and ceremonies were scheduled to coincide with auspicious dates, and avoid inauspicious. [6]
The end of significant calendar cycles ("late period"), as a cycle  k'atun , were often marked by the erection and dedication of specific monuments (especially inscriptions on steles, but sometimes twin pyramid complexes such as  Tikal  and  Yaxha ), commemorating the end, accompanied by dedicatory ceremonies.
A cyclical interpretation is also noted in Maya creation myths, in which the present world and the humans in it were preceded by other worlds (one to five others, depending on where it comes from the tradition) that were made ​​in various ways by the gods, but subsequently destroyed. The world today would have a tenuous existence, requiring prayers and sacrificial offerings periodically to maintain the balance of continuing existence. Similar themes are part of the creation myths of other Mesoamerican societies. [7]

EDIT ]CALENDAR  TZOLK'IN

The  Tzolk'in  (the  spelling  modern Mayan, also written  tzolkin ) is the name commonly used by scholars of Mayan civilization to the Sacred Mayan cycle or calendar of 260 days. The word  Tzolk'in  is a  neologism  coined in the Yucatec Mayan language , to mean "day count". [8]  The various names of this calendar used by pre-Columbian Mayan people are still debated by scholars. The calendar  Aztec  equivalent was called Tonalpohualli in the  Nahuatl language .
The calendar  Tzolk'in  combines twenty day names with thirteen numbers cycle  trezena  to produce 260 unique days. It is used to determine the moment of religious and ceremonial events and for divination. Each successive day is numbered from 1 to 13 and then starts again at 1. Furthermore, each day is given a name a sequential list of names of 20 days:
Calendar  Tzolk'in : names of days and  glyphs  associated (in sequence)
o.
Seq.¹
Name
days ²
Example
glyph  3

Yucateccentury. XVI 4
Mayan language
rebuilt 5
o.
Seq.¹
Name
days ²
Example
glyph  3

Yucateccentury.XVI  4
Mayan language
rebuilt 5
01Imix 'MAYA-g-log-cal-D01-Imix.pngImixImix (?) / Ha '(?)11ChuwenMAYA-g-log-cal-D11-Chuwen.pngChuen(Unknown)
02Ik 'MAYA-g-log-cal-D02-Ik.pngIkIk '12Eb 'MAYA-g-log-cal-D12-Eb.pngEb(Unknown)
03Ak'b'alMAYA-g-log-cal-D03-Akbal.pngAkbalAk'b'al (?)13B'enMAYA-g-log-cal-D13-Ben.pngBen(Unknown)
04K'anMAYA-g-log-cal-D04-Kan.pngKanKan (?)14IxMAYA-g-log-cal-D14-Ix.pngIxHix (?)
05ChikchanMAYA-g-log-cal-D05-Chikchan.pngChicchan(Unknown)15MenMAYA-g-log-cal-D15-Men.pngMen(Unknown)
06KimiMAYA-g-log-cal-D06-Kimi.pngCIMICham (?)16Kib 'MAYA-g-log-cal-D16-Kib.pngCib(Unknown)
07Manik 'MAYA-g-log-cal-D07-Manik.pngManikManich '(?)17Kab'anMAYA-g-log-cal-D17-Kaban.pngCabanChab '(?)
08LamatMAYA-g-log-cal-D08-Lamat.pngLamatEk '(?)18Etz'nab 'MAYA-g-log-cal-D18-Etznab.pngEtznab(Unknown)
09MulukMAYA-g-log-cal-D09-Muluk.pngMuluc(Unknown)19KawakMAYA-g-log-cal-D19-Kawak.pngCauac(Unknown)
10OkayMAYA-g-log-cal-D10-Ok.pngOc(Unknown)20AhawMAYA-g-log-cal-D20-Ajaw.pngAhauAhaw
Notes: 1.  the sequence number of the appointed day in the calendar Tzolk'in
2.  Name of the day, in standard orthography revised standard Guatemalan Academy of Mayan Languages
​​3.  example glyph ( logogram ) for the designated day. Note that for most of these there are several different ways; the versions shown here are carved on the monuments (these are versions on  chart ) 
4.  Name of the day, as recorded in the sixteenth century Yucatec language, especially  Diego de Landa , until recently, this spelling was widespread
5.  In most cases, is not known the true name of the day, as it was spoken in the times of the  classical period (c. 200 - 900 ) was made ​​in which the majority of entries. The version presented here (in  the Classic Maya , the main language used in the inscriptions) are reconstructed based on phonological evidence, if any, the symbol '?' indicates that this is an attempt reconstruction.
Some systems begin to count a Imix ', followed by 2 Ik', 3 Ak'b'al, etc.. B'en to 13. The numbers of days of trezena then starts again in a while the sequence of names of days continues, so the next day in the sequence are 1 Ix, 2 Men, 3 K'ib 'Kab'an 4, 5 Etz'nab' Kawoq 6 and 7 Ajau. With all of the twenty day names used, they start to repeat the cycle continues as long as the numeric sequence, so the next seven days after Ahaw is Imix 8 '. Repeated cycles of full interconnected 13 and therefore takes 20 days to 260 days was complete (ie, for every possible combination of number / name of day occurs once).

edit ]Origin of  Tzolk'in

The exact origin of  Tzolk'in  is not known, but there are several theories. One theory is that the calendar came from mathematical operations based on the numbers 13 and 20, which were important numbers to the Mayans. The two numbers multiplied together give 260. Another theory is that the 260-day period is the length of  pregnancy human. This number is close to the average number of days between the first period  missed  and birth, unlike  Naegele's Rule , which is 40 weeks (280 days) between  last  menstruation and birth. It is postulated that the  midwives  had originally developed this calendar to predict the dates of birth of the babies.
A third theory comes from the understanding of astronomy, geography and paleontology. The Mesoamerican calendar probably originated with the  Olmecs , in a settlement that existed at  Izapa , in southeast  Chiapas ,  Mexico , before 1200 BC. There, at a latitude of about 15 ° N, the Sun passes through  zenith  twice a year, and there are 260 days between passages in the zenith, and  gnomons  (commonly used for observing the path of the  sun  and in particular their passages through zenith) were found in this and other places. The sacred almanac may well have been started on August 13, 1359 BC, in Izapa. Vincent H.Malmström, a geographer who suggested this place and time, has his reasons:
(1) Astronomically, it is the only latitude in  North America  where an interval of 260 days (the duration of the "strange" sacred almanac used in the region in pre-Columbian times) can be measured between vertical positions of the Sun - a range that begins on August 13 - the day that the peoples of Mesoamerica believed that the present world was created, (2) Historically, it was the only place that this latitude was old enough to be the birthplace of the sacred almanac, which at that time (1973) was thought to date from the fourth or fifth centuries BC, and (3) Geographically, it was the only place on the parallel of latitude that is appropriate for an ecological niche tropical lowlands where creatures such as alligators, monkeys and iguanas were native - - they all used as names of holy days in the almanac. [9]
Malmström also offers strong arguments against the two previous explanations.
A fourth theory is that the calendar is based on crops. From planting to harvest is approximately 260 days.

EDIT ]HAAB '

Calendar Haab ': names of the months  glyphs [10]  associated with (in sequence)
o.
Seq.
Name
days
Example
glyph
meaningo.
Seq.
Name
days
Example
glyph
meaning
APopPopcarpet10YaxYaxStorm Green
2Wo 'WoBlack conjunction11Sak 'Sakwhite storm
3SipSipconjunction red12KehKehred storm
4Sotz 'Sotz 'bat13MakMakclosed
5SekSekhawk14K'ank'inK'ank'inyellow sun
6XulXuldog15Muwan 'Muanowl
7Yaxk'in 'Yaxk'innew sun16PaxPaxtime of planting
8MolMolwater17K'ayabK'ayabturtle
9Ch'enCh'enblack storm18Kumk'uKumk'ubean
    19Wayeb 'Wayeb5 days of chance
The Haab ' was the Maya solar calendar of eighteen months of twenty days each over a period of five days ("nameless days") at the end of the year known as  Wayeb '  (or Uayeb  spelling of the sixteenth century). Bricker (1982) estimates that the  Haab ' was first used around 550 BC with the starting point of the winter solstice .
The names of the months of the Haab '  names are known today by the corresponding eras of colonial Yucatec Maya, as transcribed by sixteenth-century sources (in particular,  Diego de Landa  and books such as the  Chilam Balam  of Chumayel). Phonemic analysis of the names of glyphs  Haab '  in pre-Columbian Maya inscriptions show that the names of these twenty-day periods varied considerably from region to region and from period to period, reflecting differences in (s) language (s) and uses the basic and Post-Classical eras predating their classic records by Spanish sources. [11]
Each calendar day  Haab '  was identified by a number of days of the month followed by the name of the month. The numbers of days start with a glyph translated as "seat" a month name, which is usually assigned as day 0 of the month, although a minority treat it as the 20th of the month preceding the month named. In the latter case, the "seat of Pop" is the 5th of Wayeb '. For most, the first day of the year was 0 Pop (the seating of Pop). It was followed by a Pop, 2 Pop by 19 Pop then 0 Wo, Wo 1, and so on.
As a calendar to keep track of the seasons, the  Haab '  was a bit sketchy, since this was the year to have exactly 365 days, and ignored the surplus of a quarter day (approximately) in  years tropical  real. This means that the seasons moved with respect to the calendar by a quarter day each year, so that the calendar months named after particular seasons no longer corresponded to these seasons after a few centuries. The Haab '  is equivalent to the year of 365 days of the  ancient Egyptians . Wayeb '
The five nameless days at the end of calendar, called  Wayeb ' , who believed they were dangerous days. Foster (2002) writes that "during the  Wayeb '  , portals between the mortal realm and the Underworld dissolved. No limit prevented the malicious deities they caused disasters. " To ward off evil spirits, the Maya had customs and rituals that were practiced during  Wayeb '  .For example, people avoided leaving home and wash or comb his hair.

EDIT ]CYCLE CALENDAR

Neither the system nor the Haab Tzolk'in 'numbering the years. The combination of a date and a date Tzolk'in Haab 'was sufficient to identify a date for the satisfaction of most people, since a combination thereof is not repeated before 52 years, well above the overall life expectancy of the time .
These two calendars were based on 260 and 365 days respectively, the whole cycle repeats itself exactly every 52 years Haab '.This period was known as a cycle calendar. The end of the calendar cycle was a period of tension and bad luck among the Maya, they waited to see if the gods would grant another 52-year cycle.

EDIT ]LONG COUNT

Detail showing three columns of glyphs from  La Mojarra Stela 1 of  the second century AD. The left column gives a Long Count date of 8.5.16.9.9, or 156 AD. The two right columns are glyphs from the Epi-Olmec writing .
Because the Wheel calendrical dates can only distinguish 18,980 days, equivalent to about 52 solar years, the cycle repeats itself about once in a lifetime, and therefore a more refined method to keep dates was necessary to record the story of how more accurate. So to keep dates over periods longer than 52 years, created the Mesoamerican calendar long count .
The Mayan name for the day was  k'in . Twenty of these are known as a k'ins  winal  or  uinal . Eighteen winals make a  tun . Twenty tuns are known as  k'atun . Twenty  k'atuns  make a  b'ak'tun .
The Long Count calendar identifies a date by counting the number of days since the Mayan creation, Ahaw 4, 8 Kumk'u (August 11, 3114 a. C. in the  proleptic Gregorian calendar  or 6 September in  the Julian calendar ). But instead of using a schema base 10 ( decimal ), as the Western numbering, the Long Count days were recorded on a modified base 20 scheme. Thus 0.0.0.1.5 equals 25, and is equal to 40 0.0.0.2.0.As the drive  winal  restarts the reach 18, uses the long count consistently base 20 only if the  tun  is considered the primary unit of measure, not  k'in with the  k'in  and  winal  being the number of days at a  tun . 0.0.1.0.0 long count is 360 days instead of 400 based on a count of 20 pure.
Table of units of the long count
DaysPeriod of the Long CountPeriod of the Long CountApproximate solar years
A= 1 K'in  
20= 20 K'in= 1 Winal0055
360= 18 Winal= 1 TunA
7.200= 20 Tun= 1 K'atun7.19
144.000= 20 K'atun= 1 b'ak'tun394.3
There are also four cycles of higher order seldom used  piktun , kalabtun ,  k'inchiltun and  alautun .
As the Long Count dates are unambiguous, this was particularly well suited for use in monuments. The monumental inscriptions not only included the five digits of the long count, but also included the two characters  Tzolk'in  followed by two characters  Haab ' .
The incorrect interpretation of the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar forms the basis of a belief the New Age movement, that a  cataclysm  happens on December 21, 2012. December 21, 2012 is only the last day of the 13th  b'a'ktun . It is not the end of the long count, they still will follow the  b'a'ktuns  14 ° to 20 °.
Sandra Noble, executive director of research Mesoamerican  FAMSI , points out that "for the ancient Maya, was cause for great celebration reaches the end of one complete cycle." It also considers that the submission of December 2012 as an event to the world or cosmic change as "a total fabrication and a chance for many people making money". [12]

EDIT ]VENUS CYCLE

Another important calendar for the Maya was the cycle of  Venus . The Mayans were  astronomers  able, and could calculate the Venus cycle with extreme accuracy. There are six pages in the Dresden Codex (one of the  Maya codices ) devoted to the accurate calculation of the  heliacal rise  of Venus. The Mayans were able to achieve such accuracy by careful observation over many years. There are several theories about why the Venus cycle was especially important for the Maya, including the belief that was associated with the war and was used to predict good times (called elective astrology) for coronations and war. The Maya rulers planned the beginning of the war when Venus stood. The Maya also possibly recorded the movements of other planets, including Mars, Mercury, and Jupiter.

                                                                                                                                                                                       alignment of the planets 


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  1. 2012 Doomsday is real. But it is no more effective. Please refer to a message at http://suprememastertv.com/download/0420newPress_English.jpg.
    In order to continue living on this Planet with limited remaining resources, our food system has to be sustainable. Make an input to 2012 Farm Bill by sending a letter to legislators at http://www.concernedcitizensnetwork.org/category/take-action/.

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